Recently, I published a detailed post explaining the basics of HTML : Tags, Elements and Attributes, History and the future of HTML, it’s features and functionalities.
I consider that my post, What is HTML, is super informative and an excellent piece of content (must read ).
Though, I felt sad for the part of Q&A 🙁
That section in my article could have expanded a little more, to include many more related questions into it, not making them feel orphaned.
But, I was at their rescue and I decided to compile a list of prominent questions around HTML; questions that people would be eager to ask after reading our article; questions that felt left out from their society.
So, here I bring to you, a list of answers that would solve all your queries and make you feel confident about all basic concepts related to HTML.
Here you go.
Q.1 Who invented HTML ?
Ans. HTML was invented by Sir Tim Berners Lee in 1989, along with the Web.
It was developed at CERN, the most unexpected place where a system like this could develop, a nuclear research station.
Initially, he used such a system on a NeXT Workstation to enable efficient sharing of information amongst the scientists.
Later, in 1991, HTML was applied to work as a part of Web/Internet Networks.
He was honored by Time Magazine, by including him in the list of 100 most important people of the 20th century.
Tim Berners Lee is also currently the director at W3C, the organization that standardized the syntax of HTML decades ago.
Q.2 Why is HTML called a Markup Language ?
Ans. To Markup means to define the structure, format, and layout of some sort of content/entity.
In text processing, Markup Language means a system of annotating a document in such a way that it can be distinguished from normal text, because of its syntax.
In HTML, data is marked up (stored) between HTML Elements.
Markup syntax is never displayed, it only defines different sections and their characteristics.
Also, Markup files are saved in readable text format.
Since HTML defines the properties of everything that a web document contains, it is called a markup language.
Some other examples of Markup Languages include :
- MathML : To encode mathematical notations and math content.
- XML : To make transfer of data efficient for web agents and robots.
Note : YAML is a language used by applications to store data and transmit configuration files. YAML stands for “YAML Ain’t Markup Language”.
Q.3 How to open an HTML file ?
Ans. Many different methods can be used to open an HTML File. We have listed a few here :
Opening HTML document through a text file :
- First save your code as “filename.html” or “filename.htm”. Here, “.html” is the file extension that tells the computer that this is an HTML document.
- Simply Open this file, now it will be displayed in a web browser.
Opening HTML document directly from a browser :
- Open a Browser like Google Chrome on the desktop.
- Press the keys Ctrl + O (Windows) or Cmd Key ie. ⌘ + O (Mac OS). Press these keys simultaneously.
- In the following window, Navigate to the document you want to open and done.
Q.4 How many HTML Tags are there ?
Ans. In all, there are 110+ tags in HTML.
We have listed the Top 10 Basic Tags that everyone needs to know here.
However, when the HTML was first used for web documents in 1991, only 18 tags used to exist (made by Sir Tim Berners Lee, father of HTML).
We have compiled a list of all the HTML Tags, and included them in a PDF, attached at the end of this article.
The complete list of Deprecated tags is as follows :
|<applet>||Specifies an applet|
|<basefont>||Specifies a base font|
|<center>||Specifies centered text|
|<dir>||Specifies a directory list|
|<embed>||Embeds an application in a document|
|<font>||Specifies text font, size, and color|
|<isindex>||Specifies a single-line input field|
|<listing>||Specifies listing of items|
|<menu>||Specifies a menu list|
|<s>||Specifies strikethrough text|
|<strike>||Specifies strikethrough text|
|<u>||Specifies underlined text|
|<xmp>||Specifies preformatted text|
We also have a list of HTML5 deprecated attributes.
|align||Specifies positioning of an element||text-align, float & vertical-align|
|alink||Specifies the color of an active link or selected link||active|
|background||Specifies background image||background-image|
|bgcolor||Specifies background color||background-color|
|border||Specifies a border width of any element||border-width|
|clear||Indicates how the browser should display the line after the <br /> element||clear|
|height||Specifies height of body and other elements||height|
|hspace||Specifies the amount of whitespace or padding that should appear left or right an element||padding|
|language||Specifies scripting language being used||type|
|link||Specifies the default color of all links in the document||link|
|nowrap||Prevents the text from wrapping within that table cell||white-space|
|start||Indicates the number at which a browser should start numbering a list||counter-reset|
|text||Specifies color of body text||color|
|type||Specifies the type of list in <li> tag||list-style-type|
|vlink||Specifies the color of visited links||visited|
|vspace||Specifies the amount of whitespace or padding that should appear above or below an element||padding|
|width||Specifies width of body and other elements||width|
If you want to see the complete list of HTML attributes that exist, we have attached a PDF for the same (at the end of the article).
Q.5 How to convert HTML to PDF ?
Ans. Any HTML document can be easily converted into a pdf file.
A simple tool for this purpose is, html2pdf.com.
Many other online tools are available for this task, even allowing you to simply put an HTML code or a webpage’s URL address on the web.
If you want a Chrome Extension that allows you to convert any webpage into pdf file, we have linked that too !
Here, it is : Convert webpage to PDF.
Q.6 What is the purpose of HTML ?
Ans. The purpose of HTML is to provide a standard set of generalized rules that suggest how a webpage content should look when viewed on the internet.
The web Browsers use the HTML code to encapsulate page structure and content format.
The encoded information is used to display the layout and render actual content.
Q.7 How to convert HTML to word document ?
Ans. To convert any webpage/HTML document into a Word file, you need to follow these steps :
- First save the file as “.html” or download a webpage from a browser.
- Open this html file with MS Word.
- Save this file as “.docx” using the “SAVE AS” option.
- Navigate to the desired location and save the document.
Note : Only the webpage content will get saved in the word file, the encoded syntax or code will not be included.
Q.8 How to convert HTML to text file ?
Ans. We all work with HTML on our desktops through a process where we first write the code in a Windows Notepad and then save this text file as “.html” to see how it is rendered by the browser in the form of an HTML document.
But what if we want to make some changes to the same code in the same file to make the webpage look more visually appealing.
For this, we need to convert this “.html” file back to a text document.
Just rename the same file “<filename.html>” as “<filename.txt>”, and you are done.
The document reverts back to the original text file you created by writing some code.
Q.9 Will HTML5 work without doctype ?
Ans. So, you’ve read in some tutorials that HTML syntax requires a doctype declaration inside the parent <html> element at the top of the code.
You’ve been practicing this thing to adhere to the rules, but do you actually know why is it required ? Let me tell you this.
Doctype declaration tells the browser what type of document to expect.
It was introduced in HTML5 (2014), but theoretically, it is not mandatory.
A webpage would work fine without such a declaration.
See the example of a simple html program here.
We haven’t used doctype, but the output looks fine when viewed in Google Chrome.
The reason is, modern browsers do understand the document type by its own syntax. They have been configured in such a way.
The problem begins if by chance you land on a browser that does not acknowledge an HTML version without a doctype declaration.
In such a case, it will depend on the browser version to render the document in a way it can define.
This may lead to the failure of some HTML5 tags like <header>, <footer>, <section> etc.
Q.10 What is semantic HTML ?
Ans. Semantic HTML is a concept that was introduced in 2014 with the advent of HTML5.
It revolutionized meaningful web designing by incorporating meaningful tags that are named according to the task they perform in the syntax.
Major properties of Semantic HTML are :
- HTML tags have become more specific in their task.
- Generalized syntaxes have been deprecated.
- New tags have been induced that cater to the needs of a developer as well as a browser.
- Semantic Tags help the browser clearly understand the purpose of every element and the information encoded within.
- This system is efficient in human-readability as well as machine-readability.
- They try to guarantee equal access to web content for disabled people.
Examples of Semantic HTML Tags include : <header>, <footer>, <summary>, <time> etc.
Note : <div> and <span> are some of the non-semantic elements that are still in use.
Q.11 What is Canvas in HTML ?
Ans. Canvas is an element in HTML that is used to draw graphics.
It acts as a container for simple animations as well as graphics, a container that is transparent and has height and width attributes.
Q.12 What is the difference between HTML and XML ?
Ans. The main difference lies in the fact that HTML is a predefined markup language that is used to present data on the web, whereas XML can have extensible tags and is used to transfer data.
Also, HTML is both easily human-readable as well as machine-readable.
But XML seems problematic to users and easy to read for user agents (machines).
Q.13 What is HYPERTEXT ?
Ans. Hypertext is a term coined by Ted Nelson in 1965. He is an American pioneer of computer technology. He also coined the term “Hypermedia”.
Hypertext, as we know it, is used to move around the web through URL addresses.
Hypermedia is a wider concept that is inclusive of sounds, videos, graphics, and every other resource found on the internet.
Hyperlinks use this concept to store the location of every resource on the World Wide Web.
These links define the accessibility of a resource in every corner of the world using these concepts.
For example, in Complete guide to HTML Basics, “Complete guide to HTML Basics” is the hypertext of a link that takes you to “What is HTML”, a comprehensive article that we wrote on the topic.
Q.14 What are the types of HTML editors ?
Ans. There are two types of HTML editors, one of the kinds of Text processor and the other – “What You See Is What You Get” or “WYSIWYG”.
WYSIWYG editors offer a graphical user interface to view what a webpage would look like according to the code that you type into it.
In other words, these editors provide a live preview to the actual interactive page that you are building.
Examples of WYSIWYG Editors include : Adobe Dreamweaver, Froala, and Bootstrap Studio.
Text processors are self-explainatory.
Examples of Text-based HTML Editors include : Windows Notepad++, Sublime Text etc.
Q.15 What is Google Web Designer ?
Ans. Google Web Designer (GWD) is a free web designer that can be used as a WYSIWYG HTML editor.
It just needs to be downloaded on your desktop, no other setup is required!
It has a very user-friendly Interface that allows you to track your web development module in real time.
It provides a simple yet exemplary set of tools to build upon your imagination.
It allows you to build websites as well as intuitive ads.
You can Download Google Web Designer here.
And yes, you heard it right, this software suite is completely free 🙂
Please look into the system requirements of this software below :
HTML is ever-evolving for the better.
As it incorporates new features into the standard, keeping up with it as a developer is very important.
We will keep track of all major developments in the field, and keep you informed too ! Subscribe to our email list for more updates.
For curious techies, Knowledge doesn’t hurt 🙂
I hope you would have liked the detail we added to our answers to your queries.
Do share your feedback with us in the comments below.
Happy learning !
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